GLOSSARY OF APPAREL TERMS

YARN & FIBER TERMS

CARDED YARN (KP)
A cotton yarn which has gone through a cleaning process which leaves a wide range of fiber lengths. Carded yarns are not as uniform as combed yarns.

COMBED YARN (CP)
A cotton yarn which contains straighter and longer fibers for better uniformity and strength. An additional "combing" step is conducted on carded yarn to extract foreign matter and fibers shorter than 1 1/8". This results in a more uniform and smoother yarn.

COTTON
A natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of a cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2 inches long. The longest staple fibers produce the highest quality cotton fabrics.

NYLON
A manufactured fiber, known for its strength and excellent resilience. Nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility.

OPEN END SPUN (OE)
Created through a spinning process that blows cotton fibers into a rapidly spinning turbine that wraps the fibers around themselves. OE Yarn is spun at exceptionally higher speeds than Ring Spun yarns which results in a lower cost yarn.

ORGANIC COTTON
Cotton that is grown without the use of toxic pesticides and synthetic fertilizers.

PIMA COTTON
A premium cotton that has very fine, strong, and long fibers which makes for a superior fabric with lustrous appearance and soft hand.

POLYESTER
A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950’s, having high strength, excellent resiliency, high abrasion resistance and rapid drying.

RECYCLED POLYESTER (PET)
PET is the abbreviated name for Polyethylene Terephthalate, the polymer used to create plastic soda bottles. Recycled soda bottles can be processed and converted into polyester fibers that are knit into apparel fabrics.

RING SPUN (RS)
Created through a process of spinning that continuously twists and elongates the cotton fibers into a single strand of yarn. Ring spun process yields a noticeably softer, stronger and more durable cotton yarn that is primarily used in premium apparel.

SPANDEX
A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched without breaking and still recover to its original length.

YARN COUNT
Often referred to as "Singles". The number of "hanks" of yarn it takes to create 1 pound of yarn. One hank is about 840 yards long. If it takes 30 hanks to create 1 pound of yarn, then a single yarn from this would be read as 30/1(thirty singles). The higher the yarn count, the finer the yarn. For example, a 30/1 yarn is a finer yarn than a 20/1 yarn. A finer yarn typically produces a tighter stitch density and a lighter weight fabric.

FABRIC TERMS

BLENDED FABRIC
Combining one or more different fibers into a single yarn, or using yarns of different contents to knit or weave a fabric for a garment. This is done to achieve different performance characteristics in a garment, a different hand-feel or different looks.

CVC
An acronym for Chief Value Cotton. Refers to blended fabrics that have a higher percentage of cotton in the blend than other fibers.

CVS
An acronym for Chief Value Synthetic. Refers to blended fabrics that have a higher content of synthetic material than cotton.

CIRCULAR KNIT (TUBULAR)
Fabric that is knit on a circular knitting machine which produces fabric in a tubular form.

COLORFASTNESS
Resistance to fading. A fabrics ability to retain color properties under conditions of laundering, perspiration, light or sun exposure and abrasion.

CROCKING
The transfer of color from the surface of a fabric to other materials through rubbing or abrasion.

FLEECE
A soft bulky fabric with a deep pile, or napped interior. Typically used in outerwear.

FRESH IQ
A topical ANTI-MICROBIAL chemical treatment to fabrics that will help inhibit odor development caused by biological growth on textiles exposed to perspiration. Especially common on synthetic and blended fabrics.

GARMENT DYED
Color is introduced onto garments that have already been assembled.

JERSEY
A knit fabric that has a smooth flat surface and a more textured, but uniform back. Most common fabric used for T-Shirts.

KNIT
Fabric formed by interlooping one or more strands of yarn by using knitting needles. The vertical rows of loops are called "wales"; the horizontal loops are called "courses". Changing the loop arrangement will produce a variety of knit constructions or stitches, such as Pique, Interlock, Rib, etc.

PIECE DYED
Color is introduced onto the fabric after the knitting or weaving process. This is completed before any cutting or sewing of the garment takes place.

PILLING
Tangled fiber ball that appears on the surface of a fabric from wear, continued friction or rubbing. This is common on fabric blends where the synthetic and natural fibers become broken and tangled together.

PIQUE
A knit fabric that has a surface resembling a waffle or honeycomb. Typically used in polos or sportshirts.

RIB KNIT
Rib knits have a high degree of natural elasticity in the crosswise direction. This fabric is commonly used for sleeve cuffs, collars and waistbands.

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTION
Fabric that provides protection by blocking Ultra Violet Radiation from passing through, reducing the risk of skin injury associated with Ultra Violet exposure.

WICKING
A fabric or yarn’s ability to absorb and move moisture to the outer surface so that it may rapidly evaporate.

X-TEMP®
Moisture wicking that adjusts to your body temperature to work harder the hotter you get. Helps control body temperature through evaporation of moisture for all-day comfort.

GARMENT TERMS

BUNGIE CORD / DRAWCORD
A string or cord that is sewn into the seam of a garment which can be pulled to tighten or close it.

COVERED ZIPPER
Also know as a Kissing Welt Zipper. A zipper that has it’s teeth covered by fabric. Common on many outerwear garments that are embellished across the top of the zipper.

DYED-TO-MATCH
Also known as "DTM". Often refered to components of a garment that are intended to match in color to the body of the garment.

FLAT KNIT COLLAR
A rib knit used to make the collar on many polos. Used for it’s stretch and recovery properties which helps the collar to keep it’s shape when worn.

GROMMET
A small ring or stud of metal used to reinforce an eyelet. Common on garments with drawcords.

GUSSET
An additional fabric insert sewn on a garment for added strength or expansion. Usually under the arms on garment tops, or in the crotch area of bottoms.

LOCKER PATCH
Also known as a "Moon Patch" or "Half Moon". A piece of fabric sewn along the back neck area of a garment, usually for reinforcement when hanging the garment on a hook, or in a locker.

PLACKET
The construction that forms the opening along the front of a shirt, allowing the wearer to put it on and take it off with ease.

RAGLAN ARMHOLES/SLEEVES
Raglan sleeves are sewn closer to the neckline and have a sweeping curve towards the shoulders and under the arms, giving the wearer more room in the armholes and freedom of movement.

SELF-FABRIC
Refers to a component of a garment that is made from the same material as the body of the garment. Shoulder to shoulder taping in a tee shirt is often made with self-fabric material, as well as the collar on many polos instead of a flat knit rib.

SET-IN SLEEVES
A set-in sleeve is sewn at the armhole of the garment at or near the natural edge of the shoulder. The seam line is generally straight or slightly curved from the shoulder to under the arm.

SHOULDER TO SHOULDER TAPING
Material that is sewn across the back of a garment, starting at one shoulder and running across the back neck to the opposite shoulder. Used for reinforcement of the garment as well as added comfort.

VENT
A slit in a garment which allows room for movement, as in the sides of a polo or the back seam opening of a jacket.

V-NOTCH
Also known as a "Dorito" and "Whistle Patch". A small decorative piece of fabric or stitching sewn into the shape of a V at the bottom front of a neckline.

YOKE
Portion of a garment across the shoulders in the front or back. Usually a separate piece of fabric seamed across the front or back.

SCREEN PRINTING
A print technique whereby a mesh screen is stretched across a metal frame & mounted to a screen print press used to transfer ink onto a garment, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil. One color is printed at a time, so several screens can be used to produce a multi-colored image or design on to the garment.

CHAMPION®, GEAR for sports® & HANES® Brand printing

Standard Printing - "P" process method (Art without an underbase) This type of printing is for light colored garments. A maximum of 12 different ink colors. P1 – P9. Each number following the print process code indicates the number of ink colors used. Ink colors can shift dramatically when printed on middle tone to dark garments.

"Duo-Tone" Printing - "X" process method (Art with a underbase) This type of printing is for dark colored garments ONLY . This process allows you to choose almost any ink colors that look good together A maximum of 8 different ink colors. X1 – X9. The numbers following the print process code indicates the number of ink colors used. The number following the "X" indicates the number of ink colors showing. The duo-tone process (indicated by the "X") is used when printing on middle-tone to dark garments. A base coat of white ink is applied to the print area. The subsequent ink colors are printed directly on top of that white base coat. This process prevents the garment color from bleeding (or dye migration) from the garment through the ink colors and makes the colors "POP".

Alternative Apparel printing

WP "Weathered Process"
A special print process that is muted in color with a more vintage-inspired soft hand feel. It is a look achieved by placing a soft "distress screen" pattern over the art and uses a 305 mesh so there is less ink applied to the garment. This lessens the amount of ink printed on the garment – thus "softening the hand feel". It uses the same inks as P process art.

How to Measure Apparel

FINISHED GARMENTS – TOPS

Length HPS
Measure from high point of shoulder, where natural shoulder meets neckline straight down to bottom edge at the longest point of front of garment. If garment has an attached or set-in collar, measure from neckline seam. If garment has a bound or hemmed neckline, measure from the inside edge.

Where no exact shoulder seam exists (i.e. forward shoulder, lapped shoulder, or shoulder yoke), high point of shoulder Is established at fold of garment at natural shoulder line.

Bust / Chest - 1" Down (half)
Measure straight across front of garment from side to side. If garment has attached sleeve, measure 1" down from underarm seam.

If garment has bound or hemmed armhold, measure 1" down from top edge underarm.

Measurement will need to be doubled for total bust/chest size.

Sleeve Top Length For a set-in sleeve garment, measure along top fold of sleeve from point where shoulder seam or natural shoulder fold meet armhole seam to finished edge.

For a raglan sleeve garment, measure along top fold of sleeve to finished edge. If garment has an attached or set-in collar, measure from neckline seam. If garment has a bound or hemmed neckline, measure from inside edge.

FINISHED GARMENTS – BOTTOMS

Waist – At Top (half) Align top edge of waistband in a straight line. Measure across opening from side to side at top of waistband.

Measurement will need to be doubled for total Waist size.

Inseam With garment laid flat, measure from crotch point following contour of seam to finished edge of garment. For 2-needle rise seams (i.e. jeans), measure from mid point between two rows of stitching.

NOTE: For garments with a gusset, the crotch point is the center of the gusset.